5.1 Through stars
Supreme beings?
The belief in a Supreme Being (or beings) continues to shape the lives of billions, and forms the cultural and social framework of most modern societies, even those that recognize religious freedom and diversity. Believers will tell you that faith can provide comfort in times of sorrow, hope in moments of desperation, and strength against temptation. But religion also defines the common values of many societies, and provides a sense of group identity. Religious law often forms the basis for civil law, helping to provide order, structure, and a sense of community values.
Houses of worship the world over serve as central meeting places, where members of large and small communities gather to exchange news and discuss politics. Religious leaders often wield great influence over their congregations, influencing and informing their opinions on the critical questions of the day. Followers are urged or encouraged to contribute money or labor to the faith, thereby increasing and maintaining the power and prestige of their religious leaders.
Since the dawn of civilization, societal leaders have sought to wield even greater power by declaring themselves to be super- believers, high priests, or even minor gods. The pharaohs of ancient Egypt were worshipped as earthly embodiments of various gods, and the Kings and Queens of medieval Europe claimed to rule by 'Divine Right'. Conversely, Roman Catholic Popes have led armies in battle, lived in luxurious apartments, kept mistresses, and even had children, behaving very much like earthly kings.
Even in the most secular modern societies, religion continues to play a major role in politics. One of the largest political parties in Germany is the Christian Democrats. The national flags of most Northern European nations are based on the Christian Cross. The British monarch is also the titular head of the Church of England.   n America, where freedom of religion is Constitutionally guaranteed, politicians continue to visit churches to make political speeches, and religious leaders sometimes run for public office. Indeed, after the terrorist attacks in September 2001, President George W. Bush addressed a grieving nation with a stirring address from Washington's National Cathedral.
When piety and religious identity are raised as virtues above all others, however, the effects can be poisonous and divisive. Religious wars were the curse of medieval Europe, when heretics and unbelievers were often tortured or burned at the stake. Christian Crusaders visited terror upon the Arab Muslims in the Levant for centuries. Strife between Anglicans and Catholics in England led to many bloody conflicts, and still haunts Northern Ireland to this day. Muslim imams and mullahs declare jihad against the 'Zionists' and 'Crusaders' that occupy lands they consider holy. The fundamentalist Taliban in Afghanistan destroyed centuries-old Buddhist statues, oppressed the local populace, and harbored anti-western terrorists. A theocratic government in Iran continues to arrest and brutalize those who dare to oppose their rule.

No beings?
Stephen Hawking is the most well known and respected cosmologist of our time. He has contributed significantly to our understanding of the Big Bang theory by integrating Quantum Mechanics. His work concerning Black Holes and the Big Bang theory as a reversal of the development of Black Holes set a milestone for Science. Almost every scientist now holds that the world began with the Big Bang.   Since Hawking is mainstream and universally accepted, he has to propagate commonly held beliefs in society at large.
Hawking sees no necessity of having a God. The universe could be basically self- contained and not affected by anything outside of it. Time and Space might form a closed surface and be endless after all. There might be no need for a beginning and an end.
If God created the world then he did not have much choice, otherwise nothing would have come into being. If there is a God then it is the God who started it all. Then he left us alone. The question that is there for us to solve is how did he leave it to us? How does it work. If we would know the initial state of the world then we would have complete control over its future.
Only God would be able to see the universe as it operates. For him the universe would be deterministic since he could see the world without interfering with it. The uncertainty principle would not be valid for him.
God cannot intervene in the world. If he is all powerful and all knowing then he would have foreseen. God should have known what he created and therefore does not have to intervene.
Contemporary Science asserts that there was no time before the universe began. Time of necessity stops with an infinite mass such as present in a black hole or the Big Bang before it banged.